The first few times I read through the opening of the Epistle to the Romans (1.1-7) it appeared to me that the Apostle was presenting a sort of Chalcedonian Christology. In v. 3 we have reference to Jesus being the Messiah (Son of God) because he is the seed of King David according to the flesh (κατὰ σάρκα). In v. 4 we have Jesus being declared Messiah according to the Spirit (κατὰ πνεῦμα). As I understood it this was an example of the dual nature of Christ.
I know now that I read that into the text.
The more and more I read over the passage it appeared to be saying something different. Jesus is qualified to be the Messiah, the son of God, because he is a descendant of King David. Yet this does not make one Messiah. In what sense was Jesus declared to be the descendant of David that was the Messiah? For Paul, it was the resurrection which happened because of the Holy Spirit (or Spirit of holiness).
The statement that he was a Davidic descendant κατὰ σάρκα made Jesus a messianic candidate; the statement that he was resurrected κατὰ πνεῦμα means he is the descendant who is declared to fulfill the throne of David.
Nevertheless, I still paused at κατὰ σάρκα. Why did Paul emphasize that Jesus was qualified as a human or on the basis of his human lineage? Did this indicate deity? No, this doesn’t appear to be the case. Paul speaks of himself and his fellow Jews as descendants of Abraham according to the flesh in 4.1. We know there is no dual nature there. I have concluded that the opening to the epistle says nothing directly about the deity of Christ.
I agree that Paul understood Yahshua to have been the Messiah (king of Israel) through the flesh but also I believe that Paul understood that Yahshua was the first beggotten of the dead through the Spirit and equates him to the Spirit that indwelled him Maybe this was because till the 1st resurrection occurs Yahshua the Lamb existance in heaven is by the Spirit as we see in Rev 5:6 It was very rare for Paul to refer to the preresurrected Yahshua but when he did it was by a 110% human definition
” In what sense was Jesus declared to be the descendant of David that was the Messiah? For Paul, it was the resurrection which happened because of the Holy Spirit (or Spirit of holiness).”
Yahshua was never declared to be the decendent of David, it was a well known fact while he was alive even by demons.The title messiah (anointed) was said of almost all that held office and the title son of God was said of the anointed.There is ony one way that Yahshua was the Anointed King of Israel and that was through the flesh of Davidic lineage which only one person is ever spoke of as having it, Joseph . What Paul thought Yahshua was after the resurrection is the only debated subject and but really is of very importance because he was the first born of a new creation by the resurrection of the dead which the elect and the multitude are promised the same birth
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