This week I have been reading Justin Martyr’s First Apology. At one juncture he defends the legality of Christian doctrine by appealing to similar ideas espoused by pagans. He writes (XX-XXII):
“And the Sibyland Hystaspes said that there should be the dissolution by God of things corruptible. And the philosophers called Stoics teach that even God Himself shall be resolved into fire, and they say that the world is to be formed anew by this revolution; but we understand that God, the Creator of all things, is superior to the things that are to be changed. If, therefore, on some points we teach the same things as the poets and philosophers whom you honor, and on other points are fuller and more divine in our teaching, and if we alone afford proof of what we assert, why are we unjustly hated more than all others? For while we say that all things have been produced and arranged into a world by God, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of Plato; and while we say that there will be a burning up of all, we shall seem to utter the doctrine of the Stoics: and while we affirm that the souls of the wicked, being endowed with sensation even after death, are punished, and that those of the good being delivered from punishment spend a blessed existence, we shall seem to say the same things as the poets and philosophers; and while we maintain that men ought not to worship the works of their hands, we say the very things which have been said by the comic poet Menander, and other similar writers, for they have declared that the workman is greater than the work.
“And when we say also that the Word, who is the first-born of God, was produced without sexual union, and that He, Jesus Christ, our Teacher, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended into heaven, we propound nothing different from what you believe regarding those whom you esteem sons of Jupiter. For you know how many sons your esteemed writers ascribed to Jupiter: Mercury, the interpreting word and teacher of all; Æsculapius, who, though he was a great physician, was struck by a thunderbolt, and so ascended to heaven; and Bacchus too, after he had been torn limb from limb; and Hercules, when he had committed himself to the flames to escape his toils; and the sons of Leda, and Dioscuri; and Perseus, son of Danae; and Bellerophon, who, though sprung from mortals, rose to heaven on the horse Pegasus. For what shall I say of Ariadne, and those who, like her, have been declared to be set among the stars? And what of the emperors who die among yourselves, whom you deem worthy of deification, and in whose behalf you produce some one who swears he has seen the burning Caesar rise to heaven from the funeral pyre? And what kind of deeds are recorded of each of these reputed sons of Jupiter, it is needless to tell to those who already know. This only shall be said, that they are written for the advantage and encouragement of youthful scholars; for all reckon it an honorable thing to imitate the gods. But far be such a thought concerning the gods from every well-conditioned soul, as to believe that Jupiter himself, the governor and creator of all things, was both a parricide and the son of a parricide, and that being overcome by the love of base and shameful pleasures, he came in to Ganymede and those many women whom he had violated and that his sons did like actions. But, as we said above, wicked devils perpetrated these things. And we have learned that those only are deified who have lived near to God in holiness and virtue; and we believe that those who live wickedly and do not repent are punished in everlasting fire.
“Moreover, the Son of God called Jesus, even if only a man by ordinary generation, yet, on account of His wisdom, is worthy to be called the Son of God; for all writers call God the Father of men and gods. And if we assert that the Word of God was born of God in a peculiar manner, different from ordinary generation, let this, as said above, be no extraordinary thing to you, who say that Mercury is the angelic word of God. But if any one objects that He was crucified, in this also He is on a par with those reputed sons of Jupiter of yours, who suffered as we have now enumerated. For their sufferings at death are recorded to have been not all alike, but diverse; so that not even by the peculiarity of His sufferings does He seem to be inferior to them; but, on the contrary, as we promised in the preceding part of this discourse, we will now prove Him superior— or rather have already proved Him to be so—for the superior is revealed by His actions. And if we even affirm that He was born of a virgin, accept this in common with what you accept of Perseus. And in that we say that He made whole the lame, the paralytic, and those born blind, we seem to say what is very similar to the deeds said to have been done by Aesculapius.”
In our modern world apologist are quick to argue in the opposite direction, emphasizing the uniqueness of Christian doctrine over against pagan mythology. Some Christians seek to return to a purer, Jewish form of Christianity (as if Judaism was not influenced by Hellenism and Roman culture, or the early Israelites by the mythologies of Egypt, Canaan, Assyria, Babylon, or Persia), denouncing Christmas and Easter because of its “pagan roots”. I have family who participate in a Pentecostal sect that deny the doctrine of the Trinity for the same reasons.
Once the similarities between Christianity and pagan mythology, or Greek philosophy, or other world views was used to build a bridge. Some interpreted it as evidence that God had been working in the world. In Israel he worked through Moses, the Law, the prophets. In Greece he worked through Plato, Socrates, Aristotle. Today most Christians aim to connect their culture to the message of the Gospel at some point, while denouncing how past generations did the same thing.
C.S. Lewis had an interesting interpretation of the similarities between Christian doctrine and pagan mythology. In his book The Weight of Glory (83-84) he wrote:
“What light is really thrown on the truth of falsehood of Christian Theology by the occurrence of similar ideas in Pagan religion? . . . Supposing, for purposes of argument, that Christianity is true; then it could avoid all coincidence with other religions only on the supposition that all other religions are one hundred percent erroneous . . . The truth is that the resemblances tell nothing either for or against the truth of Christian Theology. If you start from the assumption that the Theology is false, the resemblances are quite consistent with that assumption. One would expect creatures of the same sort, faced with the same universe, to make the same false guess more than once. But if you start with the assumption that the Theology is true, the resemblances fit in equally well. Theology, while saying that a special illumination has been vouchsafed to Christians and (earlier) to Jews, also says that there is some divine illumination vouchsafed to all men . . . We should, therefore, expect to find in the imagination of great Pagan teachers and myth makers some glimpse of that theme which we believe to be the very plot of the whole cosmic story — the theme of the incarnation, death, and re-birth. And the difference between the Pagan Christs (Balder, Osiris, etc.) and the Christ Himself is much what we should expect to find. The Pagan stories are all about someone dying and rising, either every year, or else nobody knows where and nobody knows when. The Christian story is about a historical personage, whose execution can be dated pretty accurately, under a named Roman magistrate, and with whom the society that He founded is in a continuous relation down to the present day. It is not the difference between falsehood and truth. It is the difference between a real event on the one hand and dim dreams or premonitions of that same event on the other.”
Alongside Justin Martyr and C.S. Lewis (and even the Apostle Paul as presented in Acts 17) the similarities between Christianity and pagan ideas doesn’t bother me all that much. Similarities do not prove or disprove the truthfulness of a claim. Other deities being born of virgins or resurrecting does not prove or disprove Christianity. I’m quite comfortable with the idea that the mythologies of our world include truth, truth that can be used by the Spirit to point people to Christ.
Some ideas should be similar for various reasons.
Obviously if Yahweh created the universe, a pagan would think their gods did the same. Egyptian cosmology was used by the Genesis author, but, the theology was anti Egyptian gods and pro Yahweh.
Taoists think God is in everything and Christian doctrine states “God will be all in all” eventually, who knows if this is literal to all material universe? Maybe God gives some light to us all and the pagans missed how and why God will be in everything?
The pagans and other non Christian struggle to see God I think, sometimes I think even an atheist does, they love God,too. They just don’t know it, they love what He creates, such as beauty and love( I know, I’m a weirdo). Listen to Handel’s Messiah, most non Christians would be moved.
It makes sense to me the divine creatures at odds with God want to counterfeit God and His thinking, so I assume there are and should be pseudo trinity’s out there, pseudo creators, pseudo divine councils this and pseudo that.
One thing I haven’t seen is a pseudo self sacrificial savior of creation among the pagan material. Most the stuff I’ve encountered needs us to be the sacrifice. Could just be I have missed it.
I think in Phillipians Paul used a pagan drink offering metaphor discussing his work.
I am not an expert on mythology, but I do think the self-sacrificial nature of God working on behalf of humanity is unique. I could be wrong, but I think you’re right.
Insightful. Perhaps it is analysis of the contrasts, rather than similarities, that illuminates most.
did you ever stop to think that the pagan authors simply copied from the christian texts? since their writings are not extant in their original forms and only later copies survive it is quite clear that the pagans saw the truth and popularity of Christ and changed their writings to look more christian in hopes of attracting unwary people.
also, for cults to work and be attractive, they must contain some element of the truth in their religious beliefs or people just will not flock to it. this is why so many cultic groups use the bible as the draw yet add so many of their own writings to their beliefs
@theologyarchaeology Are you sure that none of the Pagan writings are extant in original manuscripts? I am sure there have to be. I can see the point you are making, but surely there are some Egyptian writings describing Horus, or Greek writings describing Mithra, etc that pre-date Christianity. FYI I am a believer.
Excellent post. Thanks so much! I’m actually interacting at the moment with a non-Christian fictional text in which various religions are treated equally (and fairly), and the quotes you have provided have been very helpful! I find Martyr’s thought and method quite appropriate to the situation in which he found himself. The same can be said for Lewis.
At any rate, I always find my mind returning to Romans 1:19-22 in discussions like these. Of course there are similarities. God has revealed Himself. Mankind has witnessed this revelation from the beginning and so has this common ground. It is from this common ground that all the religions grow as man chooses to evade honoring God in lieu of “images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things”.
And so the test of man’s heart toward comes when that which is real and true is presented to him. Will he choose the true, the flesh and blood Savior, over the man-made image and its myths?
Apologies. That final paragraph should have begun “And so the test of man’s heart toward God…”
The dying and rising gods such as Baldur, Attis, Tammuz et al are in a crude way similar to the Lord Jesus. Then could it not be that the original promise by yehovah elohim to the Serpent, after the fall, of a seed to destroy him, has provoked many attempts to distract people from the true message of the Gospel? It is then easy for sceptics to see the Lord Jesus merely as one more dying and rising God.
We may note that Danu, the Celtic Mother of All Living has similarities in Isis, Sarasvati and the Great Mother of Roman religion, as well as a host of other ‘mother’ goddesses. These, it seems to me to be based on a perversion of the character and person of Eve, the true ‘Mother of All Living’.
We are accustomed to seeing a goddess in Christendom’s worship who is also the mother and who is closer to the Great Mother of the pagans than to the real mother of the Lord Jesus and His brothers and sisters.
So it is that the forces of evil have done a briliantly cunning job of sowing doubt and confusion. Even Christendom is more pagan that even some of the pagan religions.
Of course many theologians will regard the Bible as a human document and some will also see it as a less than relible one. This suggests to me that the war is being carried on, on a variety of fronts, all at once.
I have found it interesting that there is a similar phenomenon even within the church. For example, there are Gap Theorists who are on the fringe for thinking that Satan and his demons ruled the world in the time between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2, when there is evidence (the Book of Enoch, Genesis 6:1-4) that these same demons ruled the world in times of Noah, leading up to The Great Flood. Some Christian denominations are the fringe for thinking that Christ’s Kingdom is literally on the earth today… where most Christians will agree that we should live as if it is. Or Catholics, who believe we need intercessors by which to speak with God, while even Christians who nurture a personal relationship with God will agree we unworthy to have one. Yet, as you point out, our commonalities are used for division, rather than the unity of Christ’s one body. I suppose in the Church, it can be observed that some doctrines stand out more to one person than another, as each seeks out the church that embraces those aspects of God that are most important to the given seeker. This can be a positive, but then we risk making that aspect of God an idol, as we miss out on His wholeness. But lest I sound like I judge the Church to be a bunch of idolators, let me say that I find the variety of worship in Christ’s body a wonderful thing that can be misused… and I find the variety of truth within pagan rituals to be equally wonderful, because in my opinion, it is through these truths that I believe God can reach the most unlikely soul, who realizes what is true of God and what is not, and accepts those truths to the degree that God presents Himself to every individual, meeting each of us where we are at, yet holding us accountable for what we know. Therefore, I will not be surprised to find Christ acting as the advocate of supposed Pagans when it is their turn to be judged by the Father, because somehow (i.e., the Holy Spirit) they treaded their way through the falsehoods of life to discern the very nature of the One True God. In fact, it is my hope.
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