As I have mentioned (here) I am participating in “Greek Isaiah in a Year” reading group. These are my notes from this week (5:17-6:13).
The language of 5:20a seems to be echoed in Romans 1:32 and 5:21a seems to be echoed in Romans 12:16.
The MT in 5:24 has some fun imagery. A “tongue” of fire “consumes” (the word for eat) the stubble/chaff (כאכל קש לשון אש).
Torah (תורת) is Law (νόμον) over and over again in Isaiah LXX.
In 5:24-25 the provoking (παρώξυναν) of the Holy One of Israel by the people is answered with God’s provoking (παρωξύνθη) of the mountains.
In 5:26 it makes it sound as if YHWH is whistling for his angry guard dog nations.
In 5:28-29 MT the 3ms is used, seemingly personifying the nation as “he” or it. In LXX the 3mp is used, the nation as a collective, “they”.
The phrase ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ should be noted.
The train (ושוליו) of the Lord’s robe in 6:1 becomes his glory (δόξης) in the LXX. Also, the palace/temple (ההיכל) of God is his “house” (οἶκος). On the Facebook page on commenter noted that it could have been translated ναος.
Interesting transition in 6:2 where the Seraphim go from standing “above” (ממעל) God to “around” (κύκλῳ) God. The description of the flying angel shifts to the singular in v. 2b in the MT, but not the LXX.
Very interesting that in 6:3 “glory” (כבודו) is mentioned in the MT: YHWH’s glory fills the earth. The LXX retains “glory” (δόξης) as well, something mentioned in v. 1 already.
Purity is a major focus of vv. 5-7. Isaiah has unclean lips (ἀκάθαρτα). The people have unclean lips (ἀκάθαρτα). When the angel puts the burning coal to his lips to burn his lips his lawlessness is removed and his sin cleansed (περικαθαριεῖ). The MT has Isaiah with unclean (טמא) lips as well as the people (טמא) and the word for the cleansing, atoning, propitiating action (תכפר) seems to be derived from a word which means something like “wipe away” (dirt? debt? = כפר).
In v. 8 of MT YHWH asks whom he will send and who will go for him. Isaiah cries, “Behold, send me!” In the LXX except he asks who will go “from this people” (πρὸς τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον). Important for NT studies: God’s sending is “apostle-ing” and Isaiah asked to be “apostled” (ἀπόστειλόν)
Of course, vv. 9-10 is important to the messages of Jesus in the Gospels and Paul—the “seeing, but not perceiving” and “hearing, but not understanding” motif.
There is a desolation motif in v. 11. The cities (ἐρημωθῶσιν) and the land (ἔρημος) will be desolate.
In v.13 of the MT the tree falls but there is a holy seed (זרע קדש) in the stump. This has interesting interpretive connotations for a remnant. It sounds like Paul’s argument in Romans 9-11. The LXX doesn’t say this though. It seems to have an acorn falling from a station in the tree. Maybe I am missing some idiom?
See notes on: